## Lesson51- Orthographic Views & Construction Lines

Drafting tools in AutoCAD 2000 make it easy to create 2 dimensional orthographic views that are properly aligned.  the most important tool for orthographic views is POLAR. You normally start a drawing by creating 1 or 2 orthographic views. when you add a feature in one view you can update the other view to reflect the new feature. For example, you might begin the drawing of a V block by creating the end view first because it has the most information. Read More...

## Lesson50- STRETCH command

You can combine the effects of Move & Extend or Trim in a single operation to Stretch existing designs into new shapes. you must use a Crossing or CPolygon tool to select objects for Stretch to function properly. If an object is entirely inside the selection box then the entire object is Moved by the specified displacement. you can actually use Stretch in place of Move if you select the desired objects to move using a Crossing or CPolygon tool. If endpoints of LINEs & Read More...

## Lesson49- MIRROR command

Most designs are symmetrical in some way and you can save CAD construction time if you recognize this symmetry. use Mirror to automatically generate symmetrical features after you create the original features. this can save time & avoid potential errors that could be introduced by re-creating the symmetrical geometry manually. Delete Source Objects You can use Mirror to convert left side parts to right side parts or Mirror house/building plans to generate alternative designs.  when you use the Mirror command to generate Read More...

## Lesson48- ARRAY command

You can make multiple copies of objects using Copy but when the copies repeat in a regular pattern you can use Array to save time. for example, you could draw the first thread and use Array to automatically make the remaining threads for the screw below. Rectangular A Rectangular Array is a pattern with rows & columns. you can specify the distance between rows (vertically) and the distance between columns (horizontally). Distances can be positive or negative. positive distances correspond to the positive direction of the Read More...

## Lesson47- CHAMFER command

The Chamfer command is similar to Fillet in many ways except a straight LINE segment is created instead of an ARC. use Chamfer to break sharp corners where two LINEs cross or meet (or would meet if extended to an intersection point). you cannot use Chamfer on selected ARCs (unlike Fillet). Method Chamfer can use 2 different methods and you can change methods using the Method option. select the Distance method to specify chamfers using two distances measured from the Read More...

## Lesson46- FILLET command

Use Fillet to create a new ARC object that blends between two existing LINEs or ARCs. in many cases an ARC is easier to construct using Fillet than it is using the Arc command. for example, it would be a challenge to create the shape shown below if you used ONLY the Arc command. Fillet is also practical to use when LINEs meet or cross (or would meet if they were extended) in a corner to create a round corner. You can use a Read More...

## Lesson45- EXTEND command

You can make objects longer using Extend and this command is similar to Trim because there are two steps to using it. first you select 2D boundary objects (e.g. LINEs, ARCs, CIRCLEs, ELLIPSEs, LWPOLYLINEs. TEXT & 2D SPLINEs). then select 2D objects to extend to the specified boundary. Command: EXTEND↵ Current settings: Projection=UCS Edge=None Select boundary edges ... Select objects: (pick LINE) Select objects: ↵ Select object to extend or [Project/Edge/Undo]: (pick ARC) Select object to extend or [Project/Edge/Undo]: ↵ Command: There are other similarities between Trim & Read More...

## Lesson44- TRIM

Use the Trim command to remove unwanted segments of objects. you are prompted first to select cutting objects. cutting objects can be LINEs, ARCs, CIRCLEs, LWPOLYLINEs, ELLIPSEs, SPINEs and even TEXT (bounding box of text). if you press <enter> instead of selecting cutting edges AutoCAD uses all objects as cutting edges (without highlighting them). After specifying which objects are to be used as cutting edges you are prompted for objects to trim. it is important where you select objects to trim because Read More...

## Lesson43- OFFSET Makes Parallel Objects

Offset creates new objects parallel to existing 2D objects such as LINEs, ARCs, CIRCLEs, ELLIPSEs, LWPOLYLINEs & 2D SPLINEs. The new (offset) objects have the same properties (e.g. LAYER) as the objects selected for Offset. the current Layer has no effect. You can control the space between the new and original objects by  using either the distance or through methods. the through method is the default the first time you use Offest in  a drawing session. if you use the Read More...

## Lesson42- CAD Standards & Template Files

You have learned in this document how to assign a variety of object properties BYLAYER you have even seen how to override these object properties in plots by using Plot styles. All of the object properties described in this document are governed by CAD standards. most professional drawings must conform to a drafting standard. the applicable standard depends on different factors such as the  industry & country in which the drawings will be used. The subject of CAD Read More...

## Lesson41- Introduction To Plot Styles

Plot styles (new in AutoCAD 2000) let you override other object  properties to change how objects appear when you Plot. if you do not use plot styles AutoCAD plots objects the same way  they appear on-screen (if the selected output device can do this). There are two different types of plot style behaviors. named plot style behavior lets you define named styles and assign them BYLAYER (like color, linetype & lineweight). color dependent plot style behavior uses the Read More...

## Lesson40- Introduction To The Object Properties Manager

Use Properties to invoke the Object Properties Manager. Properties is modeless which means after you invoke it, this tool will remain Open until you explicitly dismiss it. it can be docked on the side of your AutoCAD window or you can double-click on the grab bars to make it float as a window. You can select objects when no command is running to view and edit exposed properties of the selected objects. Properties is a complex powerful tool and you will be learning more about Read More...

## Lesson39- Introduction To Lineweights

Use the Layer dialogue box to assign lineweights BYLAYER. left-click on the lineweight assigned to the desired layer. select one of 28 available lineweights (specified in either millimeters or inches) from the Lineweight dialogue box. Lineweights will Plot if you check Plot with lineweights on the Layout Settings of the Page Setup dialogue box. this box is automatically checked (read-only) when Plot with plot styles is checked. Lineweight On-screen Left-click on the Show/Hide Lineweights status bar button to toggle the display of lineweights on-screen. this setting Read More...

## Lesson38- Linetypes & Drawing Scale

You can assign a Linetype BYLAYER to 2D objects (LINEs, ARCs, CIRCLEs etc..) using the Layer dialogue box. left-click on the Linetype currently assigned to the desired layer to invoke the Select Linetype dialogue box. if the desired linetype is not displayed in the Select Linetype dialogue box you can pick the Load button to load it. when you create New drawings from scratch the ONLY loaded linetype is CONTINUOUS (the default linetype). Acad.lin is the default linetype file when the MEASUREMENT system variable is Read More...

## Lesson37- Overriding Object Properties Set BYLAYER

You can select objects when no command is running and then select the desired object property on the Object Properties toolbar. when you use this approach you will override the corresponding  property that is assigned to these selected objects BYLAYER. for example, you can explicitly assign a color to selected objects. Objects Not Selected You can also select properties from the Object Properties toolbar when there are no objects selected. the objects you draw after that will explicitly have that property and Read More...

## Lesson36- Managing Object Properties BYLAYER

You can explicitly assign properties like color, linetype, lineweightor Plot style to objects. assigning object properties explicitly is not as practical as  assigning object properties BYLAYER. when you explicitly assign properties to objects you lose the ability to change the properties of objects on an entire layer. good CAD practice is to assign object properties BYLAYER. Use the Layer command to create new layers and assign object properties BYLAYER. the Layer command invokes a powerful dialogue box with Read More...

## Lesson35- Introduction To Layers

Using layers in AutoCAD is like using overlay drafting or transparencies on an overhead projector. drawing views are a composite of all visible layers. Why use layers? Place objects on different layers to control how objects appear on your screen and how they appear in plots. you can assign different color, linetype, lineweight or plot styles to each layer (BYLAYER). It is easier to manage and edit your drawings later on when objects are placed on separate layers. You can generate multiple plans Read More...